The Mental Healthcare Industry in Vietnam

Posted by Written by Kyssha Mah Reading Time: 5 minutes

The mental healthcare industry in Vietnam is still developing. The government has established the National Mental Health Programme (NMHP); however, industry observers have noted that the NMHP only covers approximately 30 percent of the country, and uses a very narrow list of mental illness.

While the government estimates that approximately 15 percent of the population requires mental health care services, independent research suggests that the figure is closer to 20 to 30 percent of the population. This is a major service gap for NGOs and foreign businesses.

International NGOs and foreign businesses that want to cover this service gap, and contribute to the healthcare system, need an intricate approach when entering the country. That begins with understanding the barriers that have prevented Vietnam’s existing mental health system from developing its capacity.

Mental healthcare landscape

Mental disorders are sometimes imbued with shame and disgrace in the country, which can prevent individuals from speaking openly about their distress. For example, bác sĩ tâm thần is Vietnamese for psychiatrist; however, it directly translates in English to “doctors who treat madness.” These references are embedded with cultural stigma, implying those who seek psychological assistance are treating their obscenity.

Maintaining social composure by not publicly discussing issues—like anxiety or work stress—is common. However, psychological burdens have a wide impact on individuals experiencing distress, including their family members.

From the outside, developing a mental healthcare industry may not strike foreign investors with immediate appeal since it requires facilitating a niche market on one hand, and working within the low-cost environment on the other. However, the country’s rapid economic growth is largely driven by its demographic dividend, and there is an increased demand for all forms of health care, including mental health care services.

Conventional for-profit counseling services are likely to be a challenge for investors in the current market. With most low– and middle-income earners working full-time jobs, they are unlikely to bear the costs of taking time off work to seek out psychological assistance. Other considerations to keep in mind are factors like social stigma and the undeveloped concept of for-profit healthcare, which can prevent affluent clientele from seeking service.

However, targeting the growing middle class with new internet apps and online services for a low price may be a feasible option, while wealthier segments may become willing to pay for higher-end services as the discourse around mental health evolves. It is important to note the demographics of consumers willing to pay for quality service may change with time, as consumer spending is rising significantly.

Regardless of the service model, creating accessible options with confidentiality as the backbone of any new service is important for healthcare providers to keep in mind. Creating useful technology, like internet apps, can help people who grapple with acute social pressure access support in the comfort of their own home.

Areas of concern

In 2014, Vietnam’s Psychiatric Association conducted a study to identify which of the 10 most common mental illnesses affect the country the most. Of the formal list of mental illnesses in the country, the three most well-known issues were alcohol abuse, depression, and anxiety. However, further research to address these conclusions and to identify their causes is needed.

Beyond this, people who live in rural areas encounter their own unique challenges – particularly those left behind by the country’s economic boom. Traditional aspects of family life are undermined because of the country’s rapid economic development; intergenerational households are changing as parents move to urban centers to find work, leaving their children with extended family, or alone for long periods of time.

A study conducted by UK-based The Young Lives Project found that poverty-related stressors compromise healthy child development. Across both urban and rural areas, vulnerable youths and women lack adequate resources for their concerns. Care is especially lacking for those living in rural areas that do not have accessible transport to major cities – like Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City – where services are more widely available. However, the limited number of mental health care professionals currently working in the field are unable to provide the demands vulnerable segments of the population need, especially when resources are limited.

A joint study between UNICEF, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), and The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) surveyed the rural area of Dien Bien, in northwest Vietnam, and discovered that, of 333 attempted suicides, 140 were 19 years or younger in 2015; 16 of the 73 completed suicide attempts were children. Alarmingly, the survey found that suicidal tendencies are a pressing issue among Vietnamese youths within the province. Or, perhaps, an issue that was never given much attention. 

However, the spike in suicides is a newly recognized concern, and more research is required to address the factors that cause adolescent distress in Vietnam.

Mental health care infrastructure

The World Health Organization (WHO) surveyed the country in 2014 and found that only 0.91 psychiatrists were available per 100,000 people. 

The psychiatrists available per 100,000 population in Vietnam is comparable to its ASEAN neighbors: Malaysia has 0.76 psychiatrists available per 100,000 people and Thailand has 0.87 accessible psychiatrists for 100,000 people. However, it is far behind developed economies like Singapore, where 3.48 psychiatrists were available per 100,000 people, and the US, where 12.40 psychiatrists were available per 100,000 people.

This suggests that foreign healthcare providers and NGOs will most likely encounter challenges recruiting domestic professionals to serve the population in Vietnam.

The Department of Psychiatry at Hanoi Medical University and the National Institute of Mental Health provide programs for psychiatrists in training. General medical students can choose to do a one-year specialization in psychiatry—although its interest remains low relative to other medical fields.

Developing the mental health care infrastructure will require foreign educational institutions and professional training programs to strengthen Vietnam’s clinical capacity and skills. Collaborating with local institutions to enhance existing education or establishing independent training services can help improve the current situation.

The mental health network facilitates outpatient treatment and inpatient programs for psychiatric care. The psychiatric hospital system in Vietnam has 36 hospitals established across the country. Hospitalization for clients in severe conditions are given the care in these inpatient hospitals—currently, there are 6,000 beds.

The system delivers services through a network of state-owned hospitals; there are two National Psychiatric Hospitals: one located in the north in Hanoi, and the other in Bien Hoa city, located in the south. The remaining 34 provincial psychiatric hospitals are disseminated across the country.

Currently, Vietnam has 600 outpatient mental healthcare facilities available for locals who are looking for short-term care. Outpatient treatment offers psychosocial services for those in need, without being admitted into the hospital.

Further, while service is available through state-owned facilities, the consensus among international research is that there are no targeted facilities for children and adolescents – demographics that research suggests are highly vulnerable.

How to prepare for the market

The development of a successful mental healthcare industry will require active research and regional adaptation, with firsthand insight on evolving medical needs.

Businesspeople seeking to invest into the mental healthcare industry should familiarize themselves with local partnership requirements and the industry’s regulations. In Vietnam, regulations in the health sector are more restrictive, so it is important to be aware of the existing limitations, as well as the lack of legislation for the industry.

Foreign investments up to 100 percent are allowed for healthcare establishments and medical training units provided they can fulfill capital requirements set by the government. Businesses that intend to provide healthcare treatment have comparatively high capital requirements, while the capital requirements for medical training providers are based on the number of students.

Exploring public-private partnership (PPP) opportunities and partnerships with local NGOs may help foreign investors enter the market and contextualize international treatments and services line more quickly.

Dezan Shira & AssociatesBusiness Intelligence Manager Maxfield Brown said, “The main impediment will be on the regulatory side – taxation won’t be a barrier. Mental health is controversial in many societies and the way you go about teaching it, or approaching it, is important. Even if it is not regulated, it is culturally sensitive. But as Vietnam becomes a developed economy, these views and laws might change in five years’ time, and that will change how companies can operate in the market.”

About Us

Vietnam Briefing is produced by Dezan Shira & Associates. The firm assists foreign investors throughout Asia from offices across the world, including in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Readers may write to for more support on doing business in Vietnam.